New York, Mrs. Crannell became well known in the 1890s as an opponent of the extension of suffrage to women. 1
The Advocate was established, Mrs. Crannell said, because of the public's need to understand the "Indian problem." In the wake of the Sioux "outbreak" in 1890, there had been a tendency to reduce the "problem" to simple terms. It was not a clear-cut issue, she argued, but a very complex one that needed exposition.
Her motto set the tone for the publication. The Albany Indian Association and its monthly fit squarely into the assimilationist camp of the Christian reformers of the late nineteenth century. They supported the Americanization policy of Commissioner of Indian Affairs Thomas J. Morgan. Much of the content consisted of Morgan's reports; articles by Richard H. Pratt, S. C. Armstrong, and other assimilationist educators; and reports of the annual meetings of organizations such as the Friends of the Indians and the Mohonk Conferences. The Advocate also served the practical purpose of keeping members informed of reform activities and of projected actions by their own organization.
The Advocate also reflected the Protestantism infusing the administration of Indian affairs at that time. It advocated Christian education, but occasional articles reflected the anti-Catholic attitude among reformers who sought to have federal appropriations ended for contract Indian schools directed by the Catholics.
There was also general information content. Most issues contained an article on a particular tribe or the tribes of a state or region: e.g., the Shinnecock, Chippewa, or Mission Indians or the Indians of Arizona, Alaska, or New York. Letters from missionaries, reformers, and others in the field were published occasionally. And there was an occasional article on Indian crafts or ceremonies.
The Indian Advocate ceased publication apparently in 1896. 2
Index Sources: None
Location Sources: Danky and Hady; ULS
Title and Title Changes: The Indian Advocate ( 1891- 1896)
Volume and Issue Data: The Indian Advocate (Vol. 1, No. 1, April, 1891-Vol. 4, No. 8, November, 1894)
Publisher and Place of Publication: Albany Indian Association, Albany, New York ( 1891-1896)
Editor: Elizabeth Keller Shaule Crannell ( 1891-1894)