American Indian and Alaska Native Newspapers and Periodicals, 1826-1924 - Vol. 1

By Daniel F. Littlefield Jr.; James W. Parins | Go to book overview

in its career, the publication carried no editor's name on its masthead. While Pratt may not have physically edited the paper all of the time, he evidently kept a careful watch on its content. The paper was at times delayed because he was away on school business, as he frequently was. Much of the work of editing the paper apparently fell upon Marianna Burgess, who from the 1880s on was business manager, co-editor for a while, and superintendent of printing. Miss Burgess had learned the printing trade as a child, setting type for her father who edited the Belvidere, New Jersey, Apollo.

Pratt was replaced by Captain William A. Mercer of the Seventh U.S. Cavalry. A native of Buffalo, New York, he had entered service as a second lieutenant in 1880. He had been in charge of the LaPointe, Wisconsin, Agency for four years and the Omaha and Winnebago Agency for two years and had served at the Leech Lake Reservation in Minnesota. In the brief time he was in charge of the paper, he had no apparent editorial axe to grind. The Red Man and Helper ceased publication on July 29, 1904, and was replaced the following week by The Carlisle Arrow.*

The content of The Red Man and Helper and its predecessors clearly reflects the basic theories that underpinned one of the most significant developments in Indian education in the nineteenth century. It was in a large measure a propaganda tool for Richard H. Pratt's ideas, and his editorial control of this first Indian Service school periodical anticipated the role that his counterparts at other schools would play in relation to school publications.

In one sense, however, this publication, like many others, proved an important training ground for Indian youth. In 1893 The Red Man had a circulation of about two to three thousand, and The Indian Helper a weekly circulation of nine thousand. The print shop was equipped with a Campbell Oscillating Cylinder press, a No. 3 Eclipse, a No. 2 Eclipse, and a small model press. Later, it had a Babcock Cylinder press. The apprentice printers received a full course in composition and as much experience as possible in the job, stone, and press work. They were taught layout, operation and management of the equipment, as well as management of the steam engine and boiler that drove the machinery. Such training at the Indian industrial schools prepared a number of students for the printing trade. It made possible the entry of many Indians into not only printing but the publishing industry as well. A good example was Samuel Townsend, one of the printers trained at Carlisle in the 1880s, who later was printer for The Chippeway Herald at the White Earth Boarding School and was night foreman for the Daily Oklahoma State Capital at Guthrie. The next generation of Carlisle printers included James Mumblehead, Cherokee, and J. William Ettawageshik, Ottawa. The Red Man and Helper and its successor proved a good training ground for many Indians who entered the publishing world.


Notes
1.
The Red Man, 13 ( February, 1896), 6.
2.
The Morning Star, 3 ( December, 1882), 3.

-320-

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American Indian and Alaska Native Newspapers and Periodicals, 1826-1924 - Vol. 1
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • Introduction xi
  • Conclusion xxxi
  • GUIDE TO INFORMATION SOURCES IN THE ENTRIES xxxiii
  • A 3
  • Note 4
  • Note 5
  • Note 6
  • Note 9
  • Notes 18
  • Note 20
  • Note 23
  • Notes 27
  • Notes 30
  • Notes 32
  • Notes 34
  • Note 37
  • B 39
  • Notes 40
  • Notes 42
  • Note 43
  • C 47
  • Notes 49
  • Note 51
  • Note 55
  • Notes 58
  • Notes 73
  • Notes 79
  • Notes 81
  • Note 82
  • Notes 84
  • Notes 91
  • Notes 94
  • Notes 97
  • Note 98
  • Notes 102
  • Notes 103
  • Notes 104
  • Notes 107
  • Note 109
  • Note 111
  • Notes 116
  • Notes 120
  • D 123
  • Notes 124
  • Notes 125
  • Notes 127
  • Notes 131
  • E 133
  • Notes 134
  • F 137
  • Notes 138
  • G 141
  • Notes 141
  • H 143
  • Note 143
  • Notes 147
  • I 151
  • Notes 162
  • Note 167
  • Notes 168
  • Note 170
  • Notes 171
  • Note 172
  • Note 173
  • Notes 176
  • Note 180
  • Note 185
  • Notes 189
  • Notes 195
  • Notes 200
  • Notes 204
  • Note 209
  • Notes 213
  • Notes 216
  • Note 219
  • Notes 220
  • Notes 224
  • Notes 229
  • Notes 231
  • Note 234
  • Notes 241
  • Notes 245
  • L 247
  • M 249
  • Note 250
  • Note 251
  • Note 255
  • Note 256
  • Note 259
  • Note 260
  • Note 263
  • Notes 264
  • Notes 266
  • N 267
  • Notes 269
  • Notes 270
  • Note 273
  • Notes 277
  • O 279
  • Note 289
  • Notes 292
  • Notes 295
  • P 297
  • Notes 300
  • Notes 301
  • Notes 303
  • Q 305
  • Note 306
  • Note 307
  • R 309
  • Note 312
  • Notes 316
  • Notes 320
  • Notes 325
  • S 327
  • Note 328
  • Notes 329
  • Notes 330
  • Notes 332
  • Note 334
  • Note 335
  • Notes 337
  • Notes 338
  • Note 340
  • Note 343
  • Notes 346
  • Notes 347
  • Note 349
  • Notes 352
  • T 355
  • Notes 356
  • Note 361
  • Note 363
  • Notes 369
  • V 371
  • Notes 372
  • Notes 375
  • Note 377
  • W 379
  • Notes 380
  • Notes 382
  • Notes 384
  • Note 386
  • Notes 389
  • Notes 394
  • Notes 398
  • Notes 399
  • Note 402
  • Note 406
  • Notes 407
  • Y 409
  • SUPPLEMENTAL LIST OF TITLES 411
  • APPENDIX A LIST OF TITLES BY CHRONOLOGY 425
  • APPENDIX B LIST OF TITLES BY LOCATION 431
  • APPENDIX C LIST OF TITLES BY TRIBAL AFFILIATION OR EMPHASIS 439
  • Index 447
  • About the Authors 483
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