American Indian and Alaska Native Newspapers and Periodicals, 1826-1924 - Vol. 1

By Daniel F. Littlefield Jr.; James W. Parins | Go to book overview

gists, psychologists, archeologists, artists, and novelists." He attacked as well the "Friends of the Indian," paternalistic groups such as the Society of American Indians, the Mohonk Conferences, and the Indian Rights Association because they had "met, met, and talked, talked" and gotten nowhere. While Montezuma was instrumental in the founding of the Society of American Indians, he determined that the society had come under the influence of the Indian Bureau almost from its inception. Over the years, Montezuma waged many a battle with the group, and especially with two of its leaders, Arthur C. Parker and Sherman Coolidge. Their tendency to work within the system--and thus with the Office of Indian Affairs--outraged Montezuma. 2

Montezuma called for the immediate abolition of the Indian Bureau and for citizenship for all Indians. His main contention was that the people could and must take care of themselves. They needed to throw off the shackles of imperialism if they were to survive. He was also very vocal on specific issues such as the use of Indian Police to subdue the Pimas at the Sacaton, Arizona, Agency who were protesting land allotments and the removal of the Mojave-Apaches from Camp McDowell to Salt River. He called the Curtis Bill "makeshift" and declared it was not the answer to the Indian's problems as its proponents claimed. Eventually, the Society of American Indians came around to Montezuma's position as did other organizations, such as Red Fox's Tipi Order of America.

Some of Wassaja's most effective columns were those in which Montezuma and a persona engaged in a conversation of a topic of interest. The result is a sort of Socratic dialog in which Montezuma's position is clearly and effectively communicated. Other features included a column called "Sledge Hammer Taps," often signed by "Junius" who is described as "a restricted Bureau-governed Indian but not a Bureau-educated Indian." The positions taken by this columnist are, of course, identical to Montezuma's.

Montezuma's last fight was to prevent Commissioner of Indian Affairs Cato Sells from forcing the Yavapais to remove from the Fort McDowell Reservation to the Salt River. Montezuma was instrumental in persuading the people to resist the Bureau and its attempts to push them from their land with its valuable water rights. In 1922, Montezuma left Chicago and traveled to McDowell. Although suffering from tuberculosis, he refused to enter a sanitarium; instead, he lived on the reservation in a brush shelter built by his friends until his death in January, 1923. 3

His Wassaja was the most anti-government Indian publication to that date.


Notes
1.
Montezuma's life and career have received much scholarly attention in recent years. Of particular use in preparing this biographical sketch have been Peter Iverson, "Carlos Montezuma," in R. David Edmunds (ed.), American Indian Leaders: Studies in Diversity ( Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1980), 206-220; Iverson, "Carlos Montezuma and the Fort McDowell Yavapai Community," The Journal of Arizona History, 22 (Winter, 1981), 415-428; Iverson, Carlos Montezuma and the ChangingWorld of American Indians

-384-

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American Indian and Alaska Native Newspapers and Periodicals, 1826-1924 - Vol. 1
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • Introduction xi
  • Conclusion xxxi
  • GUIDE TO INFORMATION SOURCES IN THE ENTRIES xxxiii
  • A 3
  • Note 4
  • Note 5
  • Note 6
  • Note 9
  • Notes 18
  • Note 20
  • Note 23
  • Notes 27
  • Notes 30
  • Notes 32
  • Notes 34
  • Note 37
  • B 39
  • Notes 40
  • Notes 42
  • Note 43
  • C 47
  • Notes 49
  • Note 51
  • Note 55
  • Notes 58
  • Notes 73
  • Notes 79
  • Notes 81
  • Note 82
  • Notes 84
  • Notes 91
  • Notes 94
  • Notes 97
  • Note 98
  • Notes 102
  • Notes 103
  • Notes 104
  • Notes 107
  • Note 109
  • Note 111
  • Notes 116
  • Notes 120
  • D 123
  • Notes 124
  • Notes 125
  • Notes 127
  • Notes 131
  • E 133
  • Notes 134
  • F 137
  • Notes 138
  • G 141
  • Notes 141
  • H 143
  • Note 143
  • Notes 147
  • I 151
  • Notes 162
  • Note 167
  • Notes 168
  • Note 170
  • Notes 171
  • Note 172
  • Note 173
  • Notes 176
  • Note 180
  • Note 185
  • Notes 189
  • Notes 195
  • Notes 200
  • Notes 204
  • Note 209
  • Notes 213
  • Notes 216
  • Note 219
  • Notes 220
  • Notes 224
  • Notes 229
  • Notes 231
  • Note 234
  • Notes 241
  • Notes 245
  • L 247
  • M 249
  • Note 250
  • Note 251
  • Note 255
  • Note 256
  • Note 259
  • Note 260
  • Note 263
  • Notes 264
  • Notes 266
  • N 267
  • Notes 269
  • Notes 270
  • Note 273
  • Notes 277
  • O 279
  • Note 289
  • Notes 292
  • Notes 295
  • P 297
  • Notes 300
  • Notes 301
  • Notes 303
  • Q 305
  • Note 306
  • Note 307
  • R 309
  • Note 312
  • Notes 316
  • Notes 320
  • Notes 325
  • S 327
  • Note 328
  • Notes 329
  • Notes 330
  • Notes 332
  • Note 334
  • Note 335
  • Notes 337
  • Notes 338
  • Note 340
  • Note 343
  • Notes 346
  • Notes 347
  • Note 349
  • Notes 352
  • T 355
  • Notes 356
  • Note 361
  • Note 363
  • Notes 369
  • V 371
  • Notes 372
  • Notes 375
  • Note 377
  • W 379
  • Notes 380
  • Notes 382
  • Notes 384
  • Note 386
  • Notes 389
  • Notes 394
  • Notes 398
  • Notes 399
  • Note 402
  • Note 406
  • Notes 407
  • Y 409
  • SUPPLEMENTAL LIST OF TITLES 411
  • APPENDIX A LIST OF TITLES BY CHRONOLOGY 425
  • APPENDIX B LIST OF TITLES BY LOCATION 431
  • APPENDIX C LIST OF TITLES BY TRIBAL AFFILIATION OR EMPHASIS 439
  • Index 447
  • About the Authors 483
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