Analysis of Driving a Car With a Navigation System in an Urban Area
Motoyuki Akamatsu Matsutaro Yoshioka National Institute of Bioscience and Human Technology, Tsukuba, Japan
Nobuhiro Imacho Public Works Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan
Tatsuru Daimon Hironao Kawashima Keio University, Yokohama, Japan
To arrive at a destination, a driver requires information such as the current location of the vehicle and the route from the current location to the destination. When driving in an unfamiliar area, it is thought that the driver arrives at the destination by recognizing the current location and following the directions to the destination, with the aid of both maps and road signs. An onboard navigation system may facilitate these tasks.
In Japan, more than 20 different types of car navigation systems are now on the market. Some are built-in by the car manufacturer (factory fitted), whereas others can be bought in shops and installed by the car owner (aftermarket). Most systems show the destination, current location of the car, and distances and directions to the destination on a digital map; some also provide recommended routes.
Several aspects of ergonomic interface design are of particular interest, including the optimal placement of the display, the color of display markings, and the size of character that best facilitates navigation while minimizing distraction. One important consideration is the kind of information that should be presented on the display. There have been several studies on interface design for car navigation systems that have examined the effectiveness of the system or the manner in which information is presented to the driver ( Faeber & Popp, 1991; Labiale, 1989, 1990; Parkes, 1989; Streeter, Vitello, & Janssen, 1985). Most of these studies were conducted on highways or low traffic roads; however, the car navigation system can also be useful for driving in large cities with complex road networks. Al-