Design Guidelines for Route Guidance Systems: Development Process and an Empirical Example for Timing of Guidance Instructions
Tracy Ross Gill Vaughan Colette Nicolle HUSAT, Loughborough University, Leics., UK
During the development of route guidance or navigation systems, there are many stages in the design process requiring the input of human factors knowledge if the final system is to be usable and safe. A good review of the questions that need to be considered at each stage is provided in Ashby and Parkes ( 1993). These questions include: Who are the users?, What information do users need?, How should the information be presented?, and What are the consequences of interface design on the driver? Each has equal importance and the CEC DGXIII Transport Telematics Program (also referred to as DRIVE II) was instrumental in supporting the research needed to answer them. This chapter details some of the activity of a DRIVE II research project that aimed to answer the question, How should the information be presented?, by developing design guidelines in four intelligent vehicle highway systems (IVHS) application areas. The first half of this chapter describes the process used for the development of guidelines in one area, route guidance and navigation. The main stages were expert evaluations of existing systems, a review of existing guidelines, an identification of the main gaps in existing guidelines, and the development of new guidelines. A hierarchical structure of human factors design issues was developed as a framework on which to present results throughout the project. The second half of the chapter describes an example of empirical work conducted to develop new guidelines for one of these design issues. The study described aimed to develop prescriptive guidelines for the timing of guidance instructions.