Cognitive ITS: On Cognitive Integration of ITS Functions Around the Driver's Task
Håkan Alm Swedish Road and Transport Research, Linköping, Sweden
Ove Svidén Arise, Linköping, Sweden
Yvonne Waern Linköping University, Sweden
The first step in any cognitive ergonomics endeavor is to analyze the task to be supported. Car driving can be analyzed in a number of different ways. McKnight and Adams ( 1970) suggested 43 separate main tasks, and it is possible to break these down into about 1,700 subtasks. A less detailed, but for some purposes more useful classification, was suggested by Rumar ( 1986) and included the following categories: to plan the trip, to navigate during the trip, to follow the road, to interact with other road users, to decide the speed, to follow rules and regulations, to handle the car, and to control other tasks in the car.
The next step consists in analyzing the opportunities and consequences of the prospective technical support. Intelligent helpsystems in the future car can, in principle, give the driver help in each and every task. A driver can be helped with the task of planning a trip, finding the way to the destination, avoiding accidents on the way to the destination, and so forth. One danger in this possible development is that drivers may have a number of different intelligent helpsystems in the future car. The subtask "to control (and interact with) other tasks in the car" may increase its proportion of the driver's different subtasks. Failure to allocate attentional resources in an optimal way may increase the risk of distraction. Distraction from the inside of the car (internal distraction) has been reported as one important precrash factor ( Treat, 1980). To avoid the risks of information