consistent with the overall route. During each subgoal, they seem interested primarily in information needed to reach the subgoal.
The information most useful to drivers in constructing a cognitive map is that which represents network knowledge. Network knowledge representations are very effective for navigation despite their distortion of the real world (in terms of forms and distance). Alternatively, road maps that are accurate representations of the real world may not facilitate internalization of the information in a manner useful for road navigation.
Navigation in an unfamiliar area, at least at the tactical level, can be regarded as a process of subdividing the task into a series of subtasks (or subgoals) demarcated by turning points. The driver needs information about unique buildings or objects (i.e., landmarks), specific route options (i.e., paths), and intersections along the route (i.e., nodes) in order to achieve each subgoal. Information such as landmarks, paths, and nodes are interconnected in one-dimensional form. That is, two-dimensional map information is not always required. It is easier for the driver to interpret the route if the path between a given intersection and the next is distorted to some extent. The optimal degree of distortion that facilitates route acquisition and does not result in disorientation is an important design issue that requires further research.
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