BIBLIOGRAPHIES are sometimes offered as an avowal of labor, or a pledge of good faith. Yet most readers seem to give the courtesy of confidence to the variable clan of writers unless the boundaries of honesty are palpably transcended; and to end a book with a display of the machinery by which it has been assembled is to stress the toil which has gone into its making, not the pleasure. No formal list can truly represent a lively aggregation of sources, or suggest the luster with which these have been touched in moments of discovery. Nor, in the present instance, would a complete bibliography serve useful ends. To enumerate the printed works of Mrs. Stowe or Henry Ward Beecher or Horace Greeley or Barnum would be to fill pages with items which any student may find in almost any good library, or discover with a minimum of research. As it happens, the pamphlet writings of Lyman Beecher are more difficult to come upon, but even these can be found by comparatively simple exertions, while the large mass of periodical material and ephemeral publications which in one way or another bear upon the lives of all these characters can be unearthed, if not with ease, at least with only a moderate amount of skill and patience. Naturally as other men and women have come within the range of view their letters, memoirs, biographies, and autobiographies have been considered in turn, as well as many of their published writings; indeed, one of the delights of this task has been the number of such excursions. If these have often been willful and long, perhaps they have helped to stimulate conclusions as to the general stress and tone and color of the period.
None the less certain special debts remain. However divergent the point of view of these studies from that of others which have gone before, this book could hardly have existed without a group of earlier biographies and memoirs. The writer gratefully acknowledges the use of material drawn from The Autobiography and Correspondence of Lyman Beecher, edited by Charles Beecher; The Life and Letters of Harriet Beecher Stowe, by Charles E. Stowe ; Harriet Beecher Stowe: The Story of her Life, by Charles E. Stowe and Lyman Beecher Stowe; Harriet Beecher Stowe, by Annie Fields; A Biography of Henry Ward Beecher, by William C. Beecher and Samuel Scoville ; and The Life of Horace Greeley, by James Parton. Each of these books has offered many contributions to the present volume. Another group has provided essential material which could hardly have been obtained from miscellaneous sources. The following studies have put the writer under heavy