Ethnic Politics in Eastern Europe: A Guide to Nationality Policies, Organizations, and Parties

By Janusz Bugajski | Go to book overview

1 Bosnia-Herzegovina

POPULATION

Bosnia-Herzegovina was in a unique position among the former Yugoslav republics, in that no single nation or nationality formed an absolute majority of the population. 1 According to the 1991 Yugoslav census, the Muslims, defined as a nation in post-war Yugoslavia, had a relative majority of 43.6 percent with 1,902,954 inhabitants; the Serbs formed 31.4 percent with 1,370,476 people; and the Croats 17.3 percent with 755,071 people. The category of "Yugoslav" had declined over the years, particularly after each republic held its first multi-party elections during 1990; in Bosnia-Herzegovina it stood at 5.5 percent or 240,052 people in 1991. The remainder, 2.2 percent of the population, included Czechs, Slovaks, Ruthenians, Hungarians, and Albanians. The Muslim figure had grown in the previous decade, partly as a result of Serbian emigration, the decline of Yugoslav consciousness, the immigration of Muslims from Serbia, and the rise of Muslim identity. In 1981, out of a population of 4,125,000, 39.5 percent declared themselves as Muslim, 32 percent as Serbs, 18.4 percent as Croats, 7.9 percent as Yugoslavs, and 2.2 percent included several smaller nationalities.

Bosnia-Herzegovina's ethnic balance was compounded by a complex territorial mix among the three major communities. In the 99 municipalities outside the capital Sarajevo, Muslims formed absolute majorities in only 32, and few of these were territorially contiguous: the biggest concentrations were in northwestern, eastern, and central Bosnia. Serbs constituted absolute majorities in 30 municipalities, most of these in western, northeastern, and southeastern Bosnia. Croats formed absolute majorities in only 14 municipalities, the majority in the western Herzegovina region. In 23 municipalities, no ethnic group possessed a clear majority, and even in districts where one ethnic group predominated there were large minorities of one of the other two nationalities. Sarajevo, with a population of 525,980, included 49.3 percent Muslims, 29.9 percent Serbs, 6.6 percent Croats, 10.7 percent Yugoslavs, and 3.5 percent other groups.

-3-

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Ethnic Politics in Eastern Europe: A Guide to Nationality Policies, Organizations, and Parties
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • Introduction: - Nationalism and Ethnic Politics xi
  • Notes xxiv
  • Part I: - Post-Yugoslavia: Ethnicity Multiplied 1
  • 1 - Boznia-Herzegovina 3
  • 1: Bosnia-Herzegovina 37
  • 2 - Croatia 41
  • 2: Croatia 71
  • 3 - Slovenia 75
  • 3: Slovenia 94
  • 4 - Macedonia 97
  • 4: Macedonia 126
  • 5 - Serbia 131
  • 5: Serbia 166
  • 6 - Montenegro 171
  • 6: Montenegro 191
  • Part II: - The Balkans: Nationalism Released 195
  • 7 - Romania 197
  • 7: Romania 231
  • 8 - Bulgaria 235
  • 8: Bulgaria 263
  • 9 - Albania 267
  • 9: Albania 289
  • Part III: - Central Europe: Ethnicity Reborn 291
  • 10 - Czech Republic 293
  • 10: Czech Republic 317
  • 11 - Slovakia 321
  • 11: Slovakia 354
  • 12 - Poland 359
  • 12: Poland 394
  • 13 - Hungary 399
  • 13: Hungary 428
  • Conclusion: - Minority Rights and Ethnic Ethics 433
  • POSTSCRIPT 1995 443
  • Appendix 1A: - List of East European Acronyms 447
  • Appendix 1B: - List of English Acronyms 453
  • Appendix 2: - List of Major Nationalist and Ethnic Organizations (by Country) 459
  • Appendix 3: - National Minority Parties and Organizations (by Ethnic Group) 469
  • Index of Names 475
  • Index of Parties and Organizations 481
  • About the Author 494
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