In the course of writing a book that covers so much ground and requires several years of research and writing, many debts are inevitably incurred. I have been extremely fortunate in having the support and friendship of many people, who pointed me to new sources of information, read chapters, told me about articles or books, directed me to knowledgeable participants, shared their views about issues and events, and encouraged me in the dark days when it seemed that I might never finish.
I am particularly grateful to the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, whose research fellowship in 1977-78 permitted me to devote a year to reading, sorting out the issues, and planning my research and writing. The generous support of the Spencer Foundation enabled me to complete the writing of the book and to obtain valuable research assistance. I was also the beneficiary of the superb resources and helpful staff of the Teachers College Library, the Harry S. Truman Library in Independence, Missouri, and the Dwight D. Eisenhower Library in Abilene, Kansas.
For their thoughtfulness, resourcefulness, and thoroughness as research assistants, I thank Katy Bordonaro, Susan Mason, and Barbara Martinsons. Virginia Brereton helped me gather information about religious issues, and Tim Counihan tracked down elusive references in the final days before publication.
The many good colleagues who answered questions, asked questions, pointed me to important data, tried to help me understand some of the issues I was wrestling with, but bear no responsibility for the final product, include Martin Trow, John Bunzel, Abigail Thernstrom, Gary Sykes, Patricia Graham, Leslie Lenkowsky, Marguerite Barnett, Harold Noah, and Derrick A. Bell, Jr. I particularly want to thank Rita Kramer, who not only read each chapter as it emerged, but raised my spirits when they sagged. It was my good fortune to have Jane Isay as my editor; her good editorial judgment and her steady moral support were invaluable. I am especially grateful to Julia Strand, the copy editor of this book, for her carefulness,