Scotland from the Earliest Times to 1603

By William Croft Dickinson | Go to book overview

CHAPTER VIII
The Border Line

FOR LONG the boundary between Scotland and England was indefinite. On the west, Cumbria, held by the king of Scots since 945, possibly included the modern Cumberland and most of Westmorland; on the east, there was no distinct line of demarcation between Lothian and Northumbria. Moreover there were 'English' settlements in 'Scottish' lands, and vice versa 1; and changing allegiances might well mean changing 'spheres of influence'. A definite border line was not drawn until the middle of the thirteenth century. Even then, England, a hundred years later, was holding most of Scotland south of the Forth; and today the town of Berwick, although on the north bank of the Tweed, is still part of England, and Berwickshire has been deprived of its ancient and natural 'head burgh'.

Clearly, if the new 'Kingdom of Scotland', which had been formed, under Duncan I, from the union of Pictland, Scotland, Lothian and Strathclyde, was to expand, expansion could only be southwards; but although Malcolm III ( 1058-93, son of Duncan I), who succeeded to the throne after killing Macbeth and Lulach, made five invasions of northern England he failed to extend the lands of his kingdom. Indeed, at his death, England had succeeded in encroaching upon lands which were formerly regarded as in the possession of the king of Scots.

Malcolm's first wife, Ingibjorg, was probably a daughter of Thorfinn, earl of Orkney, and a granddaughter of Earl Sigurd the Stout who had married a daughter of Malcolm II; his second wife, whom he married about 1070, was the Saxon Margaret, sister of Edgar the Atheling -- an alliance with the legitimate royal house of England.2 Both marriages were important. Malcolm appears to have thought that through his first marriage, and through his royal descent, his invasions of northern England would be accompanied in his absence by no troubles in any part of what was still a loosely-knit ' Scotland'.

____________________
1
The population of Cumbria in the eleventh century included Britons, Angles, Danes and Scots; in Lothian there were Britons and Scots as well as Angles.
2
After all, William of Normandy was a 'conqueror'. It is true that the Atheling had been passed by -- possibly because he was felt to be too weak, or too young -- but, upon the death of Harold at Senlac, the Londoners at once chose the Atheling to be king; and the Atheling was the direct descendant (grandson) of Edmund Ironside.

-70-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Scotland from the Earliest Times to 1603
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 408

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.