Intelligence and Intelligence Testing
Whatever exists at all exists in some amount. To know it thoroughly involves knowing. its quantity as well as its quality.
-- E. L. Thorndike
Perhaps no measure used in education is more venerated or more profaned by the public than the IQ. On the positive side, this attitude reflects a readiness to accept a range of differences in intellectual ability and the possibility of measuring these differences. On the negative side, an unquestioning, almost idolatrous, attitude toward, the measure reflects popular misunderstanding of the limitations of existing tests of mental ability.
It may be that the measure finds widespread acceptance simply because the need for such a measure is so great. Somehow, ability has to be identified and evaluated if education is to be truly adapted to individual differences. A highly specialized culture is constantly in need of differentiating devices in order to match pegs of infinite diversity with holes that are equally varied. The need for predicting probable achievement cannot be met without identifying (1) the nature of abilities needed, (2) the conditions under which ability culminates in achievement, and (3) individuals who have the necessary native ability or the required developed ability at some specified time prior to the beginning of specialized training.
Into this vacuum of need a host of intelligence tests have rushed since Binet and Simon published the first useful measure in 1905. Buros ( 1961) listed 238 intelligence tests in his bibliography of tests in print