This study deals with a subject that may arouse misgivings among some well-intentioned friends of Africa, and indeed the very fact that I have discussed it might leave me open to charges of bias or ethnocentricity. Therefore I feel I must go beyond the usual "you're not to blame" statements and grant the friends, advisers, and collaborators who aided me in this endeavor unconditional absolution. This does not relieve them of my gratitude, however: they have that in abundance.
My first and largest debt is to those friends and colleagues at the University of Ghana -- both Ghanaian and non-Ghanaian -- who urged me to undertake this study; without their unfailing support and advice what follows could not have been written. A number of other professional colleagues provided valuable counsel and insights, and some were kind enough to show me unpublished materials on Ghana and political corruption: Herbert Werlin, Beverley Pooley, Richard Rathbone, Richard Crook, David Apter, and John Esseks. Peter Duignan and Lewis Gann of the Hoover Institution read the manuscript, and I am grateful for their criticisms and comments as well as for their hospitality and many kindnesses during my summer at Palo Alto. I have also profited from the valuable advice of several colleagues at Washington University; including James Davis, John Kautsky, and Kenneth Shepsle. I owe more than I can properly acknowledge to my colleague Arnold J. Heidenheimer, also at Washington University, who read the manuscript and whose seminal contributions to the study of political corruption find frequent mention in these pages. Finally, I wish to thank the Hoover Institution for the stipend and access to research materials it afforded in the summer of 1972, and for the support that permitted the first draft of this study to be completed in the peace and quiet of the Hoover Tower at Stanford University.