Danger of reform in old societies. The changes too swift, XXI. Contrast between 1780 and 1810. Transitory nature of the Bourbon restoration, XXII. Why the Revolution exploded in France. Composite forces of the movement, XXIII. Amalgamation of political with ecclesiastical power. Dangers of conservatism, XXIV. Dualism of secular and spiritual power in Christendom. Relations of the two, XXV. The fortunes of feudalism and the popedom. Beneficent action of the church, XXVI. Overthrow of the popedom. Rise of nationalities, XXVII. Place of Calvinism in the movement. Its political influence, XXVIII.
REFORM AND REVOLUTION|
Split in the European state system. Rise of the revolutionary spirit, 3. Relations of the churches. the contract theory of government, 4. The class of professional writers. Influence of Voltaire and Rousseau, 5. The Physiocrats. Their ideals and sanctions, 6. Respective convictions of the social classes in France. L'Infâme of Voltaire, 7. Meaning of the word. Loss of the historic sense, 8. Ecclesiastical organizations in France. Religion positive and negative, 9. Relations of the French monarchy and the popedom. Influence of the Jesuits, 10. The theory of Jansenism. The Jesuits and the Reformation, 11. The Jesuits and the popedom. Jansen's "Augustinus," 12. The Bull "Unigenitus." The power of Jansenism in French life, 13. Attitude of the French masses toward the hierarchy. Struggle of the parlements, 14. Relation of the parlements to the people. The clergy demand the assembling of the Estates, 15. The grandes remonstrances, 16.
VOLTAIRE'S INDICTMENT OF ECCLESIASTICISM|
Elements of unity in France. Non-conformity a kind of treason, 19. The Bologna Concordat of 1516. Fall of the Jesuit order, 20. Papal control of the French episcopate. Disrepute of Jansenism, 21. Temporary disgrace of the parlements. The privilege of a corrupt church, 22. Contributions due from church estates. Malversation of charitable funds, 23. Fusion of the nobility and prelacy. The principle of beneficent use, 24. Wealth of the prelacy. Influence of the prelates at court, 25. Voltaire and the higher clergy. Persecuting the spirit of the church, 26. The case