The Religions of Modern Syria and Palestine Lectures Delivered before Lake Forest College on the Foundation of the Late William Bross: Lectures Delivered before Lake Forest College on the Foundation of the Late William Bross

By Frederick Jones Bliss | Go to book overview

CHAPTER II THE CONSTITUTION OF THE EASTERN CHURCHES

INTRODUCTORY NOTE

FROM the point of view of their origin, the Eastern churches fall under four categories. In the first is the Holy Orthodox or Greek Church, whose claim to be the most lineal representative of the primitive church may be conceded. In the second are the national churches, which arose during the fifth and sixth centuries in protest to the decisions of the Councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon, and which are more or less tainted with the so-called heresies condemned by those councils. These are the Nestorian, Gregorian or Armenian, Coptic or Egyptian, Abyssinian, and Old Syrian or Jacobite Churches.1 In the third category are such portions of all the above-mentioned churches as have submitted to the authority of Rome, and are thus known as the Uniate, Uniat, or

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1
The Nestorian heresy of the two persons in Christ was condemned at the Council of Ephesus, 431 A. D. Its followers constituted the Nestorian Church. The Monophysite doctrine, which maintained the existence of a single nature in Christ, was condemned at the Council of Chalcedon, 451 A. D. In consequence of this the churches of Syria, Egypt, and Armenia broke away from the Orthodox Church, forming the Jacobite, Coptic, and Gregorian National Churches. The Copts, however, alone held to the purely Monophysite view, that the divinity and humanity make up one compound nature in Christ. The Gregorians, and later the Jacobites, embraced the Eutychian form of the doctrine that the divinity constitutes His sole nature. In the seventh century, the Emperor Heraclius sought a common ground for agreement between orthodox and heretics in the expression, "One divinely human mode of working and willing in Christ." This doctrine became known as Monothelitism. It was condemned at the Third Council of Constantinople in 680, but was adopted by the Maronite or National Syrian Church of the Lebanon.

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The Religions of Modern Syria and Palestine Lectures Delivered before Lake Forest College on the Foundation of the Late William Bross: Lectures Delivered before Lake Forest College on the Foundation of the Late William Bross
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface xi
  • Contents xiii
  • Chapter I 3
  • Chapter II- The Constitution of the Eastern Churches 35
  • IV- The Uniates 81
  • Chapter III- The Ritual of the Eastern Churches 123
  • Chapter IV- The Five Pillars of Islam 171
  • Chapter V- The Religious Orders of Islam 225
  • Other Features of Islam 276
  • Chapter VII- The Influence of the West 313
  • Appendix 337
  • Index 345
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