The Elements of Scientific Psychology

By Knight Dunlap | Go to book overview

CHAPTER XIV
THE THINKING PROCESS

§1. The thought reaction.

We know that there are two ways of being conscious of objects, which we distinguish as perceiving and thinking: or, abstractly, as perception and thought. The attempt to define these terms leads to mere circumlocutions, but the processes to which they refer can be pointed out in concrete experiences. I perceive the vase of roses now on the table before me, in full daylight. An hour from now, when I am in another room, I may think of them: in this particular case, I may imagine them. The different types of thought--imagination, memory, conception--have been discussed already in Chapter VIII.

For the detailed understanding of thought; for the analysis of the conditions under which it occurs, and the ascertaining of its laws, it is necessary to reduce it to a psychobiological basis, just as has been done for perception. The empirical similarities between thought and perception, and the dependence of the second upon the first, as already discussed, indicate that the basis of the two processes is essentially the same: that thought, like perception, is intrinsically a reaction. The principle of parsimony, moreover, would necessitate our considering this hypothesis, and determining how far it fits the known facts and promotes further investigation.

Reaction involves stimulation. Every reaction begins in the activity of receptors, which must be stimulated in some definite way. We must seek in the body therefore, for the neural mechanism capable of sustaining a thought reaction, and seek for the probable stimulus. At the outset, we must exclude the receptors of the so-called special senses: vision, audition, gustation, olfaction, and the dermal senses. In the first place, the functioning of these initiates perception: in the second place, thought, even thought of objects which appeal perceptually to these senses, may

-298-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Elements of Scientific Psychology
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 370

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.