Biting the Hand That Feeds Them: Organizing Women on Welfare at the Grass Roots Level

By Jacqueline Pope | Go to book overview

NOTES
1.
From Walter Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State: A History of Social Welfare in America ( New York: Free Press, 1974).
2.
By 1971 a person's right to assistance had been successfully challenged and eliminated; it had become a privilege granted by local governments to the selected worthy poor. The categories of the worthy poor included widows, orphans, the sick, and the elderly; unworthy poor were sturdy beggars and the unemployed. Funds were provided either indoors--at institutions that cared for the indigent (for example, hospitals and almshouses)--on outdoors--that is, by direct payments to the individual or family in need. The system is essentially the same in 1988.
3.
Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State, p. 52.
6.
U.S. Department of Labor Employment and Training Division, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Regional Manpower Administration Notice #1-72, press release, March 17, 1969. However, in 1967, the Labor Department had noted that renters in the lowest levels of living needed $5,915 for an urban family of four to stave off poverty.
7.
Welfarer ( January-February 1966): 15.
8.
New York City Department of Welfare, Monthly Statistical Reports, June, July, and August 1963.
11.
Richard Cloward and Frances Fox Piven, Regulating the Poor: The Functions of Social Welfare ( New York: Vintage Books, 1971), p. xiii.
12.
In 1988, the name of the New York City public assistance office is the Human Resources Administration, Department of Social Services. I shall refer to the Welfare Department throughout this book.
13.
Quoted in the Brooklyn Catholic weekly, the Tablet, May 2, 1968, p. 13.
14.
Ibid. This view was supported by 98 percent of the respondents in my study. The remaining 2 percent asserted that the department functioned as effectively as possible, given the statutory and political constraints.
15.
From the author's 1984 interview with Mitchell Svirdoff.
16.
New York State Department of Social Service, Bureau of Data Management and Analysis, "Milestones in Public Welfare in New York State 1626-1978," program brief #2, September 1979.
17.
Brooklyn's Bedford Stuyvesant neighborhood is similar to the borough as a whole, with its contrasting poor and middle-class sections. Its residents are chiefly U.S. and Caribbean blacks. See the section "The Cultural and Economic Dynamics of Brooklyn Life"--later in the chapter--for details.

-30-

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Biting the Hand That Feeds Them: Organizing Women on Welfare at the Grass Roots Level
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • Notes ix
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • 1 - The Background 1
  • Notes 7
  • 2 - The Nature of America's and New York City's Welfare Systems 9
  • Notes 30
  • 3 - Activists and Resources of a Movement 33
  • Notes 63
  • 4 - Organized Recipients Begin Challenging Social Institutions 67
  • Notes 80
  • 5 - The Brooklyn Welfare Action Council: Forty-Six Welfare Rights Member Groups 83
  • Notes 126
  • 6 - Summary, Findings, and Recommendations 131
  • Notes 144
  • Bibliography 147
  • Index 157
  • About the Author 162
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