strategies. Phase one--advocacy--essentially embraces the concept of providing technical assistance to grass roots organizations. The formulation of questions, philosophy, and strategies remain in the professionals' domain (not necessarily the planning professional). Lower income community groups have had a degree of programmatic success with this model. Phase two--facilitation--is the natural outgrowth of the advocacy endeavor. In addition, planners could serve as community brokers. Poor people's social and economic improvement ventures can be made less difficult and more effective by putting sympathetic and influential contacts in place for them.
When B-WAC closed, the WROs essentially disappeared. Its members scattered, yet they are still basically active. Given this core of seasoned community activists, I cannot help wondering whether a similar--but more establishment-type-- organization could have been established, with the assistance of the appropriate professionals. In discussions concerning B-WAC's demise, 14 of the 17 former WRO leaders agreed that this might have been so. One expressed no opinion, due to her bitter memories of welfare rights and B-WAC. Another dissenting leader, Ms. Samuels, believed that "Recipients were sophisticated enough to steer the organization in a new direction, if funds had been available."48 One final member was unsure what--if anything--would be useful in new efforts for social change. Chapter 6 will address this issue and offer recommendations.