Representation in Crisis: The Constitution, Interest Groups, and Political Parties

By David K. Ryden | Go to book overview

NOTES

INTRODUCTION
1.
Buckley v. Valeo, 424 U.S. 1 ( 1974).
2.
369 U.S. 186 ( 1962).
3.
377 U.S. 533 ( 1964).

CHAPTER ONE
1.
Hannah Pitkin, The Concept of Representation ( Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967), 3-4. Indeed, the author will argue that the lack of clarity and careful thinking about the meanings and forms of representation has poisoned efforts at the highest level, the U.S. Supreme Court, to examine and improve representative institutions.
2.
The framework for this discussion of concepts of representation relies heavily on the work of Hannah Fenichel Pitkin in The Concept of Representation ( Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967); see also Representation, ed. Hannah Fenichel Pitkin ( New York: Atherton Press, 1969).
3.
Pitkin, The Concept of Representation, 42.
4.
Ibid., 43.
5.
"Accountability to the governed is what defines representation, whether it is achieved by elections or by other means." Pitkin, 56.
6.
Pitkin, 57, quoting John Dewey in Responsibility, Carl Friedrich, ed., (Nomos III) ( New York: Liberal Arts Press, 1960), 73.
7.
For a critical look at both formalistic accounts of representation, see Pitkin, 49.
8.
This is what A.H. Birch refers to as "microcosmic representation." A. H. Birch, Representation ( New York: Praeger Publishers, 1971).
9.
What Pitkin terms "descriptive representation" finds its purest expression in strict proportional representation, the goal of which is to "secure

-217-

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