NLF; National Liberation Fronts: 1960/1970

By Robert Shanab Elias Abu; Donald C. Hodges | Go to book overview

INTRODUCTION
A Typology of African Liberation Struggles Robert Elias Abu Shanab

The struggle for liberation in Africa is focused on (a) colonialism (b) apartheid, (c) neocolonialism, and (d) black imperialism.

Colonial oppression in Africa is primarily carried out by Portugal in the territories of Angola, Mozambigue, Guinea, and the Cape Verde Islands. Despite the various liberation movements operating in the Portuguese colonies in Africa, the ultimate objectives are the same: (1) the recognition of the rights of the people under Portuguese colonialism to self-determination and formal political independence; (2) the removal of all armed forces and base; (3) the safeguarding of unity and territorial integrity. Toward the realization of these objectives a coordinating body for the guerrilla movements in the Portugues colonies, the Conference of Nationalist Organizations of Portuguese Colonies (CONCP), was formed in 1961. This organization includes People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), African Party for the Independence of Guinea and the Cape Verde Islands ( PAIGC), and Mozambique Liberation Front (FRELIMO). In addition to these liberation movements, and in sharp opposition to them, the following movements are also dedicated to the liberation struggle in the Portuguese colonies: National Union for the Complete Independence of Angola (UNITA), the Angolan Exiled Revolutionary Government (GREA), and Mozambique Revolutionary Committee (COREMO).

The liberation struggle in Portuguese Guinea is the most successful one operating in the Portuguese colonies. At present PAIGC under the leadership of Amilcar Cabral, has been able to liberate four-fifths of Guinea. The movement started in 1956, but did not

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