Eastern European nations, mainly Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria, were liberated from Nazi Germany by the Red Army in 1945 and came under the political and economic influence of the Soviet Union. From a military point of view, they, together with East Germany and Albania, became members of the Warsaw Pact ( 1955), a counterpart of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Economically, these countries formed (in 1949) the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA), or Comecon, a similar but less effective organization than the Common Market of Western Europe, or the European Community (EC). Both organizations, the Warsaw Pact and CMEA, were dominated up to 1990 by the Soviet Union. Yugoslavia was loosely associated with both economic organizations and Albania; after 1961, it was associated with neither. As mentioned previously, from the other Balkan nations, Greece is a full member of the European Community since 1981 and Turkey an associated member since 1964. Recently, both Communist organizations, the Warsaw Pact and CMEA, were dissolved.
Although trade and investment among the CMEA member nations had not advanced as much as that among the EC members, some cooperation on matters of production and long-term economic development had been achieved. The low level of cooperation and advancement in foreign trade in CMEA was primarily due to duplications in industrial production. Trade among the CMEA members was primarily conducted on a bilateral basis. Each nation planned its own development and included a growing trade with the other partners. 1 There was not an integrated planning organ or a common economic policy for multinational