presenting individual cases of apparently pointless evils does not provide the relevant evidence, for such cases fail to show that what seems pointless is really pointless or that their mere pointlessness counts against (T).

In conclusion: it seems that the atheologian is no more successful with his evidential or inductive argument than with his deductive one. His inductive argument from evil does not disconfirm God's existence, nor has he presented relevant evidence to show that evil tends to disconfirm God's existence. Nor do the prospects appear bright that he can produce the relevant evidence. Thus it remains to be shown that the existence, variety, and profusion of evil make it irrational to believe in the existence of an omnipotent, omniscient, good, and loving personal God.


NOTES
1.
William Rowe, Philosophy of Religion (Encino: Dickenson, 1978), pp. 80-86.
2.
Rowe, p. 86.
3.
David Hume, Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion ( New York: Hafner, 1948), p. 73.
4.
For the derivation of this theorem from the axioms of the elementary calculus of probability, see Wesley Salmon, The Foundations of Scientific Inference ( Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1966), pp. 58-63.
5.
Wesley Salmon, "Religion and Science: A New Look at Hume's Dialogues," Philosophical Studies 33 ( 1978), 143-68.
6.
Rowe, pp. 87f.; Hume, Parts X and XI.
7.
Evil must be excluded from N, otherwise N would entail E, and the value of P(E/N&G + ̄) and P(E/N&G) would each be 1, with the result that P(G/N&E) = P(G/N). Morally sufficient reasons, defenses, and theodicies must be excluded in order to develop a prima facie case. The reasons for excluding construed evidence for God's existence will be spelled out and evaluated below.
8.
H. J. McCloskey, God and Evil ( The Hague: Nijhoff, 1974), pp. 8-10; Rowe, pp. 92-93.
9.
For recent defenses of the cosmological argument see Bruce R. Reichenbach , The Cosmological Argument: A Reassessment ( Springfield, Ill.: Thomas, 1972) and William L. Craig, The Kalām Cosmological Argument

-41-

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Evil and a Good God
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Acknowledgments vi
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Notes xv
  • 1 - The Deductive Argument from Evil 1
  • Notes 22
  • 2 - The Inductive Argument from Evil 25
  • Notes 41
  • 3 - Presuppositions 43
  • Notes 60
  • 4: Theodicy for Moral Evils 64
  • 5 - Theodicy for Natural Evils 87
  • Conclusion 117
  • 6 - Must God Create the Best Possible World? 121
  • Conclusion 128
  • Notes 129
  • 7 - Why is God Good? 130
  • 8 - Is God Omnipotent or Finite in Power? 154
  • Index 197
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