crusade. Winston Churchill helped mightily with his Fulton, Missouri "Iron Curtain" speech the year before and on March 12 President Truman had advanced the cause by asking the GOP-controlled Congress for $400 million to combat communism in Greece and Turkey, thus establishing the Truman Doctrine. By May the Congress had approved the Truman request and also passed the Taft-Hartley anti-labor law. And in June, Secretary of State George C. Marshall in a speech at Harvard developed what came to be known as the Marshall Plan which, as the World Almanac put in deadpan fashion, "was credited with restoring economic health in Europe and halting the march of communism in those states cooperating with the plan. The Marshall proposals set the pattern for the vast program of post-war U.S. aid." ( World Almanac, 1975, Newspaper Enterprise Association, New York.)
It was a period of deep concern to men in the Wall Street board rooms and official Washington. Communists and other advanced democratic forces were playing a great role in Europe and Communists were even in the French and Italian cabinets. Washington was clearly determined to get rid of Communists and other progressives in European governments and to establish "safe" right-leaning regimes that would collaborate meekly with U.S. capital. In 1949, Washington initiated the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) under which U.S. military bases were established all over Western Europe and along the Mediterranean. The underlying theory, the "Big Lie" of the time, was that U.S. armed forces were essential as a "trip wire" against alleged Soviet westward advance. Otherwise, the media warned ominously, the Soviet Red Army would move from its postwar lines to the English Channel.
Never mind the facts -- that the USSR had lost 20 million of its citizens and that more than one-third of its industry had been devastated by the Nazis and that a war-weary Soviet population wanted only peace and a chance to rebuild its shattered cities and villages. "Defense" budgets continued to swell and the U.S., then the sole possessor of the "secret" of the atom, brandished "The Bomb."
At home, Washington began to step up a series of loyalty-security measures under the growing fog of anticommunism and anti-Sovietism. Democrats vied with Republicans to prove that they were not "soft on communism." It was the beginning of that miasma in which McCarthyism was spawned.
For the New York Democratic machine bosses, embittered by five PR elections, it was the ideal moment. Nor were they lacking in allies. The