THE language we call Scots has a common origin with English in that it is in large measure derived from the speech of the Anglian peoples who settled in northern Northumbria. In the seventh century Northumbrian kings established themselves and their language in southeast Scotland. However, the Gaelic-speaking Scots of the West pushed east and south to the Lowlands, and by the eleventh century Gaelic had become the dominant language of Scotland. Then came another change. From the twelfth century, kings of Scotland came under strong Norman influence. Though Norman French now became the language of the Court, northern English influence as well as Anglo-Norman immigration into Scotland altered the picture. When we add the Scandinavian influence from Viking settlers in northern England who moved north to Scotland, the product was a development of northern English or Anglian considerably influenced by Anglo-Danish (or Scandinavianized northern English). The result was the language we know as Scots.
Scots developed differently from English in many ways. It preserved certain Anglo-Saxon vowels that changed in English, or it developed them in a different way: it preserved a considerable vocabulary of Anglo-Saxon origin that was lost in English. Scots developed its own grammatical forms and its own ways of borrowing from other languages (e.g., verbs from the Latin infinitive instead, as in English, from the perfect participle passive: "dispone," "propone"; English: "dispose," ("propose"). It retained or developed its own pronunciation. At the same time, English was close enough to Scots to be fully intelligible to edu-