IX
RESTORATION AND REVIVAL

'THE humid and corrosive quality of the atmosphere', wrote the Monthly Review in 1800, 'is continually obliterating the specimens of antient art with which our pious forefathers embellished the country. Some have perished; others are seen "nodding to their fall"; and even where no gross acts of folly or omission can be charged on clergymen or their parishioners, the tooth of time has committed cruel depredations.'1 The growth of antiquarian interest in the past was accompanied by a new sense of responsibility for the upkeep and restoration of ancient monuments,2 a responsibility often misplaced in its activities. The eighteenth century had already seen some important enterprises, though many of them were rather purgings of worn 'barbaric' ornament, old tombs, old screens, old pulpits and stalls, than genuine efforts of conservation. James Essex (d. 1784)3 was a genuine antiquarian, and one whose views about open vistas, throughout the whole length of the church, were to underlie some of the bitterest of nineteenth-century controversies. Three years after Essex's death James Wyatt began restorations at Westminster abbey and also at Lichfield. These soon unleashed a prolonged attack on him in the pages of The Gentleman's Magazine, conducted by John Carter, 'antiquity's most resolute friend', whose drawings of Gothic detail and buildings were the handbook of Bishop Milner and the new purists. Durham was the main centre of their battle,

____________________
1
xxxii. 421.
2
For a general survey of this subject see M. Briggs, Goths and Vandals ( 1952), chaps. vi-x. Nineteenth-century books on the cathedrals generally contain some details as to recent restorations, but in most cases an exact account of nineteenthcentury repairs and alterations has yet to be written: a notable exception is A. F. L. Clarke and H. M. Colvin, 'Rebuilding and Repair of Berkshire Churches during the seventeenth, eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries', Berks. Archaeol. Journ. liii ( 1953), 65, liv ( 1954-5), 58, and lv ( 1956-7), 73.
3
D. R. Stewart in Arch. Rev. cviii ( 1950), 317.

-223-

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English Art, 1800-1870
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Contents vii
  • List of Plates ix
  • List of Figures xxi
  • Abbreviations xxiii
  • I- Romanticism 1
  • II- Painters in Water-Colour 29
  • III- The Regency Style 65
  • IV- Turner and Constable 97
  • V- Statuary 128
  • VI- The Age of Wilkie 149
  • VII- The Battle of the Styles 176
  • VIII- State Patronage 203
  • IX- Restoration and Revival 223
  • X- The Great Exhibition 254
  • XII- Memorials, Portraits, And Photography 299
  • Bibliography 321
  • Index 331
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