XII
MEMORIALS, PORTRAITS, AND PHOTOGRAPHY

IT had been an age much given to commemoration, and almost more given to controversy about methods and aims of commemoration. The Napoleonic heroes monumentally remembered in St. Paul's had served as a pretext to raise questions of admission and maintenance in London's cathedral and abbey. In 1831 Sydney Smith, more famous as a wit than as an archaeologist, became a canon of St. Paul's. 'There has been', said C. R. Cockerell in 1841,1 'no superintendence at all comparable to his': but Smith was much alarmed by the prospect of free admission, and defended an entrance fee of 2d. 'to see the statues'. The picture he draws of behaviour in the cathedral is a reminder that, below any experiments in aristocratic or upper middle class refinement, the people of London, ill fed, ill housed, uneducated, moved but slowly in any changing of their habits. 'The cathedral [is] constantly and shamelessly polluted with ordure, the pews are sometimes turned into cabinets d'aisance, and the prayer books torn up; the monuments are scribbled all over, and often with grossest indecency.'2 At Westminster, behaviour seems to have been more orderly, and here the main list of damage is due to the setting up of galleries for coronations. That of George IV, lavish in its display, had brought a heavy toll of broken heads, hands and drapery: William IV's had been more carefully conducted but at that of Victoria many monuments were damaged, amongst them 'that fine one by Flaxman to Lord Mansfield'. 'What!' said a labourer to Allan Cunningham, who as Chantrey's assistant had worked much in the abbey, 'can you expect a man who has only 18s. a week to take

____________________
1
P.P. 1841, vi. 474 (Report from Select Committee on National Monuments and Works of Art). A permanent ecclesiastical commission had been appointed in 1836, and the unpopularity of the Church during the Reform Bill agitations singled it out as something that must be reformed.

-299-

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English Art, 1800-1870
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Contents vii
  • List of Plates ix
  • List of Figures xxi
  • Abbreviations xxiii
  • I- Romanticism 1
  • II- Painters in Water-Colour 29
  • III- The Regency Style 65
  • IV- Turner and Constable 97
  • V- Statuary 128
  • VI- The Age of Wilkie 149
  • VII- The Battle of the Styles 176
  • VIII- State Patronage 203
  • IX- Restoration and Revival 223
  • X- The Great Exhibition 254
  • XII- Memorials, Portraits, And Photography 299
  • Bibliography 321
  • Index 331
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