Nationalism and Internationalism: Essays Inscribed to Carlton J. H. Hayes

By Edward Mead Earle | Go to book overview

FRENCH JACOBIN NATIONALISM AND SPAIN

BEATRICE F. HYSLOP

IN The Historical Evolution of Modern Nationalism, Professor Carlton J. H. Hayes outlined and contrasted the humanitarian nationalism of the early French Revolution and Jacobin nationalism of the period of the Terror.1 Emphasis upon national unity, upon liberty and equality as natural law, upon democracy in government, and upon cosmopolitanism were characteristics of humanitarian nationalism. The exigencies of civil and foreign war transformed the nationalism of the early Revolution into Jacobin nationalism with four added characteristics: intolerance of dissent, reliance on force and militarism, religious intensity and appeal, and missionary zeal. Professor Hayes used Barère de Vieuzac and Carnot to illustrate Jacobin nationalism, and devoted nearly thirty pages to the propagation of this new Revolutionary nationalism. He described the development of the "nation in arms," national education, the French language, the new journalism, patriotic societies, promotion of national music, art, and literature, nationalism as a religion, and nationalist economics. Not only did Jacobin nationalism spread in France; it was disseminated abroad. In only one paragraph was the role of the new Revolutionary army mentioned by Professor Hayes: "Everywhere they propagated the principles and practices of Jacobin nationalism."2 The present study will attempt to throw light upon the propagation of Jacobin nationalism outside the boundaries of Revolutionary France.

Inside France, republicanism was a factor differentiating Jacobin from humanitarian nationalism, not sufficiently emphasized by Professor Hayes. Abroad, however, the French Revolution was viewed by the ruling classes as antimonarchical from the beginning. In considering the spread of Revolutionary ideas outside France, therefore, differences between early humanitarian and Jacobin

____________________
1
Carlton J. H. Hayes, The Historical Evolution of Modern Nationalism ( New York, 1931). Chapter it was devoted to humanitarian nationalism, and Chapter but to Jacobin nationalism. Alphonse Aulard published much valuable material on Revolutionary nationalism in his Le Patriotisme français de la Renaissance à la Révolution ( Paris, 1921), in the Révolution française, a review of which he was long editor, and in his Études et leçons ( 9 vols., Paris, 1893- 1924).
2
Hayes, op. cit., pp. 56-57.

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