to both sides of the Atlantic. But until this happier climate among nations
becomes a reality, there is no serious alternative to the relationships in the
West that NATO has built over the past forty years.
A different version of this essay was published by the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars as "'The End of the Alliance': Lessons of the 1960s,"
in the series "Beyond the Cold War," Current Issues in European Security, September 1990.
Note for example Irving Kristol, "Does NATO Still Exist?" in
Kenneth A. Myers
, NATO: The Next Thirty Years ( Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1980), 361-
71; Melvyn Krauss, How NATO Weakens the West ( New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986).
Richard J. Barnet, "Reflections: The Four Pillars," New Yorker ( 9 March 1988), 80-83; Robert A. Levine, NATO: The Subjective Alliance: The Debate Over
the Future ( Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1987), 215-20.
Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers ( New York: Random
House, 1987), 515, 518-19; David Calleo, Beyond American Hegemony: The Future of the Western Alliance ( New York: Basic Books, 1987), 215-20.
Ronald Steel, The End of the Alliance: American and the Future of Europe
( New York: Viking Press, 1964), 15-16.
SHAPE pamphlet "Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE)
at a Glance," 1987.
Aide-Mémoire, 17 February 1961, in the New York Times, 21 February
Military Procurement Authorization 1964, Hearings before the U.S. Senate
Committee on Armed Services, 21 February 1963, 88th Cong., 1st sess., 342-43.
Alain C. Enthoven and
K. Wayne Smith, How Much Is Enough? Shaping
the Defense Program, 1961-1969 ( New York: Harper and Row, 1971), 147FF.
McNamara testimony, "The Atlantic Alliance," Hearings before the U.S.
Senate Subcommittee on National Security and International Operations of the
Committee on Government Operations, 21 June 1966, 89th Cong., 2d sess., pt. 6,
Robert Bowie, "Tensions Within the Alliance," Foreign Affairs 42 ( October
The Future Task of the Alliance (Harmel Report), 13-14 December 1967, Brussels, North Atlantic Council, Final Communiqués, 198-202; ibid., 24-28 June 1968,
Reykjavík, North Atlantic Council, Final Communiqués, 216.
Ibid., 15-16 November 1968, Brussels, 214.
"NATO in the 1990s: Special Report of the North Atlantic Assembly,
Colin S. Gray, "NATO: Time to Call It a Day?," The National Interest
(Winter 1987-1988): 24.
Bernard E. Trainor, "Sharing the Defense Burden: Allies Are Listening," New York Times, 6 September 1988.