THE AFTERMATH OF VIENNA
ENGLISH Russophobia was primarily a product of the forces which determined events in England and upon the continent in the years after Waterloo. Although the legacy of the eighteenth century influenced its growth, the course of English political and economic development in the first decades of peace, the intellectual atmosphere in which Romanticism and Utilitarianism flourished, the purposes and prejudices of English and continental statesmen, and the evolution of the Concert of Europe all proved to be more significant. They were the elements of the soil in which it waxed.
In England the end of a quarter of a century of hostilities revealed a sick social order and a people in large measure at war with itself. At a moment when the unemployment and the sharp commercial depression attendant upon the demobilization of the armed forces and the suspension of governmental expenditures for military purposes were creating serious economic problems, a generation of statesmen who had received little education in economics readily ignored the evils produced by the still unrecognized industrial revolution. The measures adopted to preserve order were conceived inevitably in terms of the interests and the outlook of the ruling aristocracy. Although France had been defeated, Jacobinism still appeared to be dangerous, and the same policy of repression which had successfully suppressed its first manifestations inspired the legislation which dealt with the present discontents. In 1817 the writ of habeas corpus was suspended, the right of assembly restricted, and the press muzzled. The influence of the landowning classes secured the passage of the Corn Law, which protected English agriculture from continental competition, if it aggravated proletarian misery. The income tax was repealed, and newspapers were re-