The Second International, 1889-1914

By James Joll | Go to book overview

VII
SUMMER 1914

The crisis of July 1914 came with startling and shattering suddenness on a Europe oddly unprepared for dealing with it. For although there had been constant talk of war for the past ten years, each crisis had in fact been survived without the expected débâcle, while in the last year there had, perhaps, even been some lessening of the tension. And the news of the assassination of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand on 28 June, though shocking, was not entirely surprising. The assassination of royal persons or of heads of states was not uncommon; within living memory an Emperor of Russia, the Empress of Austria, three Presidents of the United States, a President of the French Republic and a King of Italy had all been murdered, to say nothing of the King and Queen of Serbia, the King of Portugal, several Russian Archdukes and other minor princes, or of many unsuccessful attempts. After the first shock had passed most people in Europe, the members of the Socialist parties among them, sighed with relief, and turned to the more pressing and interesting problems of domestic politics and scandal.

The Austro-Hungarian Government, in fact, had been completely successful in lulling any suspicions that might have been entertained, simply by allowing more than three weeks to elapse between the murder of the Archduke and the dispatch of their ultimatum to Serbia. In the meantime the Social Democratic press of Europe, though continuing to express a general anxiety about possible trouble in the Balkans, did not show any sign of expecting an immediate and disastrous crisis. The French Socialists voted in the Chamber against the special credits

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The Second International, 1889-1914
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page vii
  • Contents ix
  • Illustrations x
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • Introduction 1
  • The Socialist World In 1889 4
  • [ii] - The Founding Of The Second International 30
  • III - The Struggle With the Anarchists 56
  • IV - Reformism And Revisionism 77
  • V - Socialism And Nationalism 106
  • VI - The Bells of Basle 126
  • VII - Summer 1914 158
  • VIII - Conclusion 184
  • Appendix - The Stuttgart Resolution 196
  • Select Bibliography 199
  • Index 206
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