Political Ideologies: A Comparative Approach

By Mostafa Rejai | Go to book overview

aggrandizement of a few. The primacy of economic forces and the institutionalization of ownership-as-the-arena-of-exploitation give rise to incessant class struggle, oppression, and alienation. Conflict, in other words, is inherent in the economic structure of society.

The overriding and unifying theme in Marxism, as we have seen, is moral outrage against the institutions and practices of Western capitalist societies. When combined with unceasing reminders of exploitation, brutalization, dehumanization, and alienation, this dimension provides one of the most potent emotional appeals in human history. Thus, to paraphrase, Marx's Communist Manifesto closes with the ringing exhortation: Workers of all countries unite. You have nothing to lose but your chains.

Ideally, the evaluative component of Marxism revolves around egalitarianism, communalism, and communal ownership and control of national wealth. All this is merely a step toward the realization of a classless society in some distant future--a society in which all conflict ends, peace and harmony prevail, human creativity finds complete fulfillment, and the formula, "From each according to his ability, to each according to his need," is promulgated.

The programmatic ingredient of Marxism is weak and untenable in that it calls for spontaneous and successful risings of the oppressed against the oppressor. As we shall see, however, this weakness was amply remedied by Lenin, Mao, Ho, and Castro, among others.

The social base of Marxism is, strictly speaking, fully internationalist: the proletariat, regardless of time and place. (In classless society, of course, all distinctions will presumably vanish into one harmonious human race.) In practice, however, as we shall see, Lenin, Mao, Ho, and Castro turned Marxism into national enterprises. As a result, there is as much friction between communist countries today as there is between any other groups.


Selected Bibliography

Avineri, Shlomo. The Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970.

-----, ed. Marx's Socialism. New York: Atherton Press, 1973.

Bober, M. M. Karl Marx's Interpretation of History. Rev. ed. New York: Norton, 1965.

Bottomore, T. B., ed. Karl Marx: Early Writings. London: C. A. Watts, 1963.

Cohen, G. A. Karl Marx's Theory of History: A Defense. Princeton, NJ.: Princeton University Press, 1979.

-97-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Political Ideologies: A Comparative Approach
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xi
  • Part I Comparative Framework 1
  • 1: Comparative Analysis of Political Ideologies 18
  • Part II Selected Ideologies 21
  • 2: Nationalism 55
  • 4: Marxism 97
  • 5: Leninism 114
  • 6: Guerrilla Communism 115
  • 7: Democracy 169
  • Part III Recapitulation 173
  • 8: Comparing Political Ideologies 175
  • Appendixes 181
  • Selected Bibliography 193
  • Index 195
  • About the Author 202
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 202

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.