JACOBIN EQUALITY AND NATIONAL LIBERATION
After Napoleon's fall the Jacobin strain in European thought reemerged. New Jacobins reiterated the principles of 1793, demanding the just reordering of society by ending social inequalities that they believed derived from the private ownership of property.
In fact, according to Robespierre, the right of the masses to liberty, security, and assistance limited property rights. Robespierre had been guillotined in 1794, and the revolution ended soon thereafter. Gracchus Babeuf, however, asserted that the revolution must continue because the wealthy had retained control of society while keeping the poor enslaved. According to Babeuf, the revolution aimed to destroy inequality, thus ensuring to all members of society an honest existence. In order to pursue his aims, Babeuf headed the "conspiracy of the equals" against the Directory, but he was captured and executed in 1797. After his death, public debate on his egalitarian ideas ceased, but Jacobin secret societies wishing to overthrow the existing order and to implement those principles remained active.
Restoration Jacobins shared a number of ideals. They believed that the transition from an old regime to a new order could be achieved only through revolution. Arguing that humanity moves progressively toward greater equality, they criticized existing institutions because of their irrationality. Convinced internationalists, they had faith that new revolutions would not be confined to one country alone, but would spread. They fused political and social behavior, advocating the rights of all citizens to participate in political life and to share economic wealth. Jacobins believed in the revolutionary mission of the petite bourgeoisie and the lower classes, both of which were excluded from politics. They worshipped the French Revolution and particularly idealized the Convention