AUTHORITY AND REASON IN THEOLOGY
1. While secularism was being fashioned into a thoroughgoing philosophical creed by the Utilitarians, an intellectual ferment along very different lines was taking place in the world of religious thought; and though it is true that the results of this for philosophy are meagre, it engages so large a share of the intellectual energies of a generation of Englishmen, that it can hardly be left unnoticed. There are several distinct and even sharply hostile forms which this theological renaissance assumes; but in a general way they have a common character even in their diversity. Their interest lies less in the quest for abstract rationality or truth, than in the concrete and the historical--in the institutional forms of the Church, that is to say, and the emotional realities of religious experience as these center about historic dogmas. It is by anticipating, somewhat faintly to be sure, the significance of the historical outlook, which the rise of the notion of development was later to bring to the front, but which the academic philosophies had hitherto ignored, that the religious movement makes its chief speculative contribution.
In the precursors of the intellectual revival in the Church there is little prophecy of its future course. Richard Whately, the most commanding figure here, is primarily a logician, and spiritually has more in common with the milder rationalism of the preceding century than with the theologians who im-