PERSONAL IDEALISM, PANPSYCHISM AND REALISM
1. In comparison with the self-confidence and relative solidarity of the absolute idealists, and their highly articulated and comprehensive program, other tendencies in the latter part of the nineteenth century run the risk of appearing chaotic and lacking in prestige. It was not until the appearance of two rival philosophies,--first pragmatism, and later neorealism,--showing something of the same unity of logical technique that lends itself to enthusiastic discipleship and the founding of a school, and marked by an originality of standpoint which could not be waved aside as mere outgrown traditionalism, that the vogue of absolutism was seriously imperilled. Nevertheless there was a very considerable amount of contemporaneous thinking going on to which the idealists, in their critical preoccupation with the empiricism of Locke and Hume, and their conviction that Germany had at last hit upon the one true method in philosophy, were inclined to do something less than justice. Most of this also was influenced in some measure by Kant. But in the main it had more realistic sources, in part the Scottish philosophy of Common Sense, in part the older English tradition modified by recent advances of science, and partly also foreign-grown products such as, in particular, the idealistic realism of Lotze.
The confused cross-currents that are present here will necessarily lead to some degree of arbitrariness in any attempt at a