1. The realism of the latter part of the nineteenth and the opening of the twentieth century was on the whole too sporadic, and too little marked by sensational features, to attract any very large amount of attention either from the dominant idealism, or from its younger rival pragmatism. In more recent years, however, realism has suddenly developed into an aggressive school, characterized by an intense class consciousness, and a lively faith in its own destiny. Traces at least of all of its distinctive doctrines can be found in the past; but these doctrines are given an explicit logical setting which justifies its claim to rank as a genuine philosophical novelty. Here also the task of evaluating the movement is complicated, however, as in the case of pragmatism, by the fact that it combines several motives whose relation to one another is not at once obvious; and indeed in the end it is open to question whether we have to do with a single tendency, or with several rival ones.
Neo-realism and pragmatism meet on common ground in their hostility to two foes--absolutism on the one hand, and representative dualism on the other. To both of these neorealism opposes the thesis, that we have an immediate knowledge of reality that is non-mental in its nature; though such a doctrine bears a different emphasis according to the context. As against idealism, it insists that things are not in