IN ANY CONSIDERATION of training for the public service it is appropriate to begin with the Institute of Public Administration, formerly known as the New York Bureau of Municipal Research and the Training School for Public Service.1 The institute's experience is significant. It has been a pioneer and at sometime or other has experimented with the basic idea underlying nearly every one of the current types of public service training. This variety of practice is the result both of circumstance and of design. The record is worth reviewing briefly.
The Training School for Public Service was established in 1911. Its plan of training--new, stimulating, and almost startling at the time-- in retrospect seems to have been a natural development of the era, a reflection of the conditions or convictions that influenced Frederick Taylor's scientific management, Watson's behaviorism, and T. R.'s progressivism. The idea was to learn through doing, but not through doing alone, rather through doing plus observing freshly, critically, and optimistically. The New York Bureau of Municipal Research had begun to subject the administration of New York City to an objective scrutiny some years earlier,2 and its observations were so significant that it had already won the enmity of Tammany Hall and had laid bare the conditions that led to the reforms of the McClellan, Gaynor, and Mitchel administrations.3 The Bureau of Municipal Research was playing an important part in those reforms. In this atmosphere of successful____________________