models, including the shortest-route problem, the minimal spanning-tree problem, the maximal flow problem, and the CPM and PERT. Of these, the CPM and PERT are considered to be more sophisticated and understandably more complex than any other network model, but all play a critical role in planning, scheduling, and controlling the activities of an organization.
From a decision making point of view, all network models have some built-in flexibilities that allow the decision makers an opportunity to incorporate any changes from the initial plan and study their impact on project completion. This, in turn, makes it possible to develop a planning and scheduling system that is sufficiently dynamic to respond instantaneously to changed conditions. It is this latter characteristic that makes these models increasingly useful for decision making in an organization.