Cost and Optimization in Government

By Aman Khan | Go to book overview

makers with a set of solutions that will allow them to rely more on objective analysis and less on subjective judgments. The four programming models discussed here, linear, integer, dynamic, and heuristic, are all capable of doing that. Of these, linear programming is by far the most widely used. It is simple to understand, relatively easy to construct, and less complex to use than the rest of the models, perhaps with the exception of heuristic programming.

However, linear programming models are not without their weaknesses. For instance, the optimal solution produced by a linear programming model is useful insofar as the decision variables can be expressed in real numbers. This may not be a sufficiently stringent requirement, since for many real world problems it is necessary that the variables take on nonnegative integer values. Interger programming is uniquely suitable for dealing with such problems. It uses the same simplex algorithm as linear programming, but produces a much better solution for problems that require a discrete solution.

Dynamic programming, on the other hand, is considered just as versatile as linear programming. It can be used in almost any situation and relationship: linear, nonlinear, deterministic, stochastic, continuous, and discontinuous. There are certain advantages to using this type of model in that it allows a problem to be serially structured without any recycling or going back, which means that there are several optimal points from which a decision maker could make a choice. This apparent flexibility has an advantage over other programming models where the solution is restricted to a single optimal value.

Finally, heuristic programming serves as a useful decision tool in situations where it takes a prohibitive amount of time and cost to determine an optimal solution. By arriving at good enough solutions using rules of thumb or approximation, heuristic programming can offer viable solutions to complex problems where conventional programming models do not work.


Notes
1.
G. B. Dantzig, Linear Programming and Extensions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1963.
2.
A. H. Land and A. G. Doig, "An Automatic Method of Solving Discrete Programming Problems." Econometrica, 28 ( 1960): 497-520.
3.
J. D. Little, et al., "An Algorithm for the Traveling Salesman Problem." Operations Rese- arch, 11( 1963): 972-989.
4.
E. Balas, "An Additive Algorithm for Linear Programs with Zero-One Variables." Opera- tions Research, 13 ( 1965): 517-546.
5.
R. E. Bellman, Dynamic Programming. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1957.
6.
H. W. Kuhn and A. W. Tucker, "Nonlinear Programming," in J. Neyman [ed.]

-251-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Cost and Optimization in Government
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Acknowledgments xii
  • Chapter 1 Basic Cost Concepts 1
  • Chapter 2 Cost Behavior 23
  • Notes 59
  • Chapter 3 Cost Analysis 60
  • Notes 105
  • Chapter 4 Cost Accounting 106
  • Notes 146
  • Chapter 5 Classical Optimization 148
  • Chapter 5 Classical Optimization 148
  • Notes 190
  • Chapter 6 Network Analysis 191
  • Notes 213
  • Chapter 7 Mathematical Programming 215
  • Notes 251
  • Chapter 8 - Games and Decisions 253
  • Notes 279
  • Chapter 9 Multicriteria Analysis 281
  • Chapter 9 Multicriteria Analysis 281
  • Notes 305
  • Chapter 10 Productivity Measurement 346
  • Chapter 11 Quality Control 348
  • Notes 373
  • Chapter 12 Besides Cost and Optimization 375
  • Notes 381
  • Bibliography 383
  • Index 389
  • About the Author 395
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 398

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.