Besides Cost and Optimization
This final chapter looks at several topics that do not quite belong to the realm of cost and optimization, rather they belong to an area of management that directly affects how cost and optimization are utilized in reality, in particular how they are implemented. It does not behoove an organization to have a brilliant idea, a tool, or a concept if it cannot be implemented. Implementation lies at the core of a decision process. It is the means that bridges the gap between theory and practice, between knowledge and the utilization of that knowledge, between the skill one possesses and making the best use of that skill to solve a real-world problem. In its bare essence, implementation means getting a job done. 1 But implementation is not an easy task. What makes it difficult is the range of factors that an organization needs to overcome to successfully carry out the tasks of implementation.
This chapter looks at several factors that are critical to an implementation process. They range from simple economics to communication to contingency management to legal and ethical concerns. To a considerable extent, the success of an organization depends on the ability as well as the commitment of those responsible for running the affairs of the organization to understand and appreciate the role these factors play in the implementation process.
Implementation costs time, money, and other resources. Even as simple a tool as a network model requires skill to design, time to apply, and money to support the process that will eventually utilize it. But skill, time, and money are scarce resources that very few organizations can ill-afford. Consequently, one must evaluate the costs as well as the benefits associated with implementation. In other words, one must do a formal analysis, using methods such as benefit-cost or cost-effectiveness analysis, to determine if the benefits received from implementation outweigh their costs. Clearly, for many of the topics discussed throughout this book (including those that