easily. Two, the availability of high-speed computers with enormous capacities (many of which are already available) will make it even more possible to solve complex problems with greater ease, especially those that are large and unstructured in nature.
But these scenarios of optimism will become feasible only if the organizations concerned are willing to make the necessary changes that will become incumbant upon them as time progresses. As a necessary condition, they must be willing to make sure that factors, especially those that have direct economic and noneconomic impact on organizational decisions, are in place to serve their intended objectives.
Organizational decision making is concerned with the functions and processes of an organization and how these processes are used to coordinate its resources in order to achieve its goals and objectives with maximum efficiency. Thus, there is a direct linkage between management, efficiency, and the cost and optimization techniques discussed in this book. In recent years, as organizations became complex, their functions also became complex and their processes more exhaustive. The issues the decision makers are concerned with have also become more diverse and encompassing. Along with efficiency and productivity, decision makers today are expected to deal with every conceivable aspect of management. Not only that, they have to be prepared to deal with uncertainties over which they have no control.
This concluding chapter has briefly focused on several management issues that have become an integral component of the decision process in an organization insofar as implementation is concerned. They are multidimensional in nature, ranging from simple economic considerations to contingency management to ethical concerns. In addition to this, there are other areas of management that are also important in the functioning of an organization, in particular government, such as employee motivation, conflict resolution inside bureaucracy, leadership role, and so on. Although they are not directly concerned with the tools and techniques of cost and optimization such as those that have been presented here, they can significantly affect the decisions an organization makes and the success with which they are implemented.