Some of the contents of this study appeared elsewhere in different form. Material from chapter 2 appeared in "Learning to Punish: Victorian Children's Literature," Bucknell Review: Culture and Education in Victorian England, ed. Patrick Scott and Pauline Fletcher (Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press, 1990), 99-107. Material on Dickens appeared in "Authorized Punishment in Dickens's Fiction," Studies in the Novel, 24, No. 2 (Summer 1992), 112-30. And general materials appeared in "Paying Up: The Last Judgment and Forgiveness of Debt," Victorian Literature and Culture, 20, ed. John Maynard and Adrienne Auslander Munich ( New York: AMS Press, 1993). 55-68.