The Change to a Bureaucratic- Authoritarian System
From the end of World War II through the 1980s, the change to a bureaucratic- authoritarian regime represented the most frequent type of systemic transformation. After the dominant leaders died in the Soviet Union and China, the mobilizing tendencies receded. Bureaucratic-authoritarian modes of public policymaking became more dominant. In Latin America numerous military coups--golpes de estado--overthrew elected civilian governments. Directed by the armed forces, the bureaucratic-authoritarian regimes tried to suppress liberal pluralism and organize the state behind orderly economic development. Except in the Soviet Union after Stalin's death, the ascendancy of bureaucratic-authoritarian elites marked a trend away from socialism and toward capitalism. Whatever the ideological rhetoric, Chinese and Vietnamese policy officials abandoned activities that mobilized the masses around egalitarian goals. Central state economic control lessened. Regional governments, domestic private enterprises, and foreign investment corporations assumed a more important role. Market mechanisms, rather than state planning, shaped a larger share of economic production, trade, and distribution. In Latin America as well, the military coups that toppled civilian leaders in Brazil ( 1964), Argentina ( 1966, 1976), Uruguay ( 1973), and Chile ( 1973) suppressed socialist parties, Marxist movements, unions, radical populist associations, and left-wing media. Military officials and technocrats coordinated economic policymaking. The state, national capitalists, and multinational corporations wielded dominant control over the demobilized popular sector. Rapid economic growth and low inflation took policy priority over income equality or full employment. 1 Similar trends emerged in China and Vietnam after the elitist mobilization regime declined.
Elitist mobilization systems disintegrated when structural, cultural, and behavioral crises undermined their mass activism, organizational cohesion, ideological mo-