related to AIDS without displaying one's own personal beliefs, anxieties, and biases. It is quite another to take seriously the question, Why be moral in the first place?

To answer this question satisfactorily, we must deal with people who are genuinely concerned about persons with AIDS, those who minister to them, and members of the broader commonweal. We cannot afford to regard AIDS as just another intellectual puzzle that mainly provides intriguing grist for the heuristic mill or opportunity for one's own career advancement. Rather, we are talking about fundamental questions of right and wrong and of duty and obligation that strike at the core of what we mean by ethics. Motive is relevant. We must move beyond the sterile analysis of theory and concept (while continuing to incorporate both) to focus on why people do or do not care about doing what is right with respect to AIDS. For this to happen, we need to broaden our lens to include issues of commitment and caring to complement our concern with grand ethical guidelines and principles, and to include what Leon Kass has described as the "'small morals' that are the bedrock of ordinary experience and the matrix of all interpersonal relations" ( 1990:8). With customary insight, Kass goes on to conclude that: "Perhaps in ethics, the true route begins with practice, with deeds and doers, and moves only secondarily to reflection on practice. Indeed, even the propensity to care about moral matters requires a certain moral disposition, acquired in practice, before the age of reflection arrives. As Aristotle points out, he who has 'the that' can easily get 'the why.'"

The AIDS crisis is important in and of itself because of the nature of this public health pandemic. However, if ethical thinking is to make a meaningful difference in the AIDS crisis--and in any comparable crisis-it must help us balance our concern about abstract reasons for right action with a concern about what moves people to care about right action. But AIDS also provides a severe test of our commitment to the most basic of human values. How we respond to this crisis will teach us a great deal about our virtue and the relevance of ethics.


NOTE
1.
Recently I had a conversation with a prominent oral surgeon in which we discussed the risks to dentists who treat AIDS patients. Without hesitation and with considerable conviction, this practitioner argued that gay dentists should assume the primary responsibility for treatment of persons with AIDS, since "they are all

-22-

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AIDS & Ethics
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Contributors xv
  • 1. Aids: the Relevance of Ethics 1
  • Note 22
  • References 23
  • 2. Aids, Public Health, and Civil Liberties: Consensus and Conflict in Policy 26
  • References 47
  • 3. Mandatory HIV Screening and Testing 50
  • References 73
  • 4. Aids and the Ethics of Human Subjects Research 77
  • Acknowledgments 101
  • References 102
  • 5. Aids and the Crisis of Health Insurance 105
  • References 124
  • 6. Ethical Issues in Aids Education 128
  • Acknowledgments 151
  • Notes 151
  • References 153
  • 7. Ethics and Militant Aids Activism 155
  • Notes 186
  • References 186
  • 8. Aids and the Physician-Patient Relationship 188
  • Notes 211
  • References 213
  • 9. Aids and the Obligations of Health Care Professionals 215
  • References 236
  • 10. Aids and Privacy 240
  • Acknowledgments 272
  • Notes 272
  • References 274
  • 11. Aids and the Law 277
  • References 305
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 306
  • Index 311
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