Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Context and Conceptualization

By Michael Levy | Go to book overview

As far as evaluation is concerned, early comparative studies that aim to establish the superior method, have given way to more 'atomistic' studies that recognize the complexity of interrelating factors associated with the characteristics of the media, the learner, and the particular learning context.

Innovations continue to be made, and the pace seems to be accelerating. The convergence of once separate media such as video and the computer, or telecommunications technologies and the computer, moves us towards a multi-user, multi-site environment for interaction and learning, stretching far beyond the confines of the traditional computer laboratory. Amidst all this change, issues such as the role of the teacher and computer in CALL, optimal approaches to authoring, effects of the technology on the methodology, integration, and evaluation remain central issues, as they have over the last thirty years.


Notes
1.
A useful discussion of the early history of computer-based education, with a cross-section of project descriptions, is given in an introduction to computer-based education published by Digital Equipment Corporation ( 1983). A short history of CALL from 1965-85 is given by Ahmad et al. in chapter 3 of their book ( 1985). Key projects include the Stanford Proiect, the PLATO system, work at Dartmouth College on BASIC, the Scientific Language Project ( 1965-9) and early work with microcomputers. Also programmed instruction, computational linguistics and machine translation are included. Taking a broader perspective, O'Sheaand Self ( 1983) give a good general history of computers in education. The focus is more on the mechanisms used in the programs (e.g. branching programs) and the activity type (e.g. simulations, dialogue systems), although the TICCIT and PLATO projects are also covered. A recent addition on the history of CALL is given in a special issue of the CALICO Journal 1995: 12/4. Though sometimes anecdotal and as the editors explain only a partial collection, this journal issue provides a very valuable perspective on the history of CALL in North America.
2.
Hart ( 1995: 37) says that the acronym for PLATO may have been supplied after the event, in answer to those who asked what it stood for. An alternative version suggests PLATO was named after the philosopher.
3
Hart provides an illuminating discussion on the development of the

-44-

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Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Context and Conceptualization
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • List of Illustrations viii
  • Preface xi
  • Acknowledgements xiv
  • 1. Introduction 1
  • Notes 11
  • 2. Call in Context I: A Historical Perspective 13
  • Notes 44
  • 3. Call in Context Ii: An Interdisciplinary Perspective 47
  • Notes 74
  • 4. Conceptualization I: the Call Literature 76
  • Notes 116
  • 5. Conceptualization Ii: the Call Survey 118
  • Notes 150
  • 6. Emerging Themes and Patterns of Development 151
  • 7. a Tutor-Tool Framework 178
  • Notes 214
  • 8. on the Nature of Call 215
  • Notes 232
  • Appendix A: The CALL Survey 233
  • Appendix B: The design of the CALL Survey 246
  • Appendix C: Miscellaneous charts 248
  • Appendix D: Resources on the Internet 250
  • References 257
  • Author index 289
  • Subject Index 293
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