Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Context and Conceptualization

By Michael Levy | Go to book overview

lack of funding for development purposes. Finally, progress in CALL was regarded as mixed: many reasons for this assessment of CALL were given, all of which are worthy of further reflection.


Notes
1.
The CALL survey relates to conditions at a particular time, the questionnaire having been completed between September 1990 and March 1991. Inevitably, conditions have changed since that time, especially in terms of the hardware and software used for CALL materials development. In fact in the current climate, with almost monthly innovations in hardware and software, any work on CALL is going to be outdated in one way or another, constrained by the inevitable time-lag between writing and publication. Such limitations apply less to the literature review, however and, as stated earlier, it is hoped that the combination of the findings from the literature, and the survey will provide a more balanced and representative sample than the survey alone could possibly provide.
2.
The findings of the CALL survey reported in Chapter 5 are restricted to answers to questions that relate to how CALL has been conceptualized, one of the central themes of the book. The CALL survey also covered working methods, factors for success, and teacher education as they each relate to CALL materials development. A general report on the findings of the CALL survey as a whole is given in Levy ( 1994c), and teacher education is dealt with in detail in Levy ( 1989, 1990a, forthcoming a). For further information on any aspects relating to the CALL survey please contact the author. (See also Appendix B.)
3.
Q. 1.2.2 (philosophies, methods, and approaches). The label 'philosophy' is used here in order to allow for a more general position to be expressed, one that may not be covered by these more narrowly defined terms such as language teaching methods or approaches.
4.
Q. 1.4.7 (philosophy used to encompass all). Here 'philosophy' is used as the umbrella term to denote the teaching/learning orientation of the CALL author, because of potential ambiguity in the meaning and connotation of alternative terms such as 'method', 'approach', and 'methodology' (see Savignon 1983: 24; Richards and Rodgers 1986: 15).

-150-

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Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Context and Conceptualization
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • List of Illustrations viii
  • Preface xi
  • Acknowledgements xiv
  • 1. Introduction 1
  • Notes 11
  • 2. Call in Context I: A Historical Perspective 13
  • Notes 44
  • 3. Call in Context Ii: An Interdisciplinary Perspective 47
  • Notes 74
  • 4. Conceptualization I: the Call Literature 76
  • Notes 116
  • 5. Conceptualization Ii: the Call Survey 118
  • Notes 150
  • 6. Emerging Themes and Patterns of Development 151
  • 7. a Tutor-Tool Framework 178
  • Notes 214
  • 8. on the Nature of Call 215
  • Notes 232
  • Appendix A: The CALL Survey 233
  • Appendix B: The design of the CALL Survey 246
  • Appendix C: Miscellaneous charts 248
  • Appendix D: Resources on the Internet 250
  • References 257
  • Author index 289
  • Subject Index 293
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