Conative and Affective Process Analysis

By Richard E. Snow; Marshall J. Farr | Go to book overview

the Cognitive Interference Questionnaire that can be administered prior to subjects' performance in order to assess their proneness to intrusive thoughts. The instrument we are developing will be more comprehensive than the global measure recently described by Broadbent, et al. ( 1982) because it will permit development of individual profiles of types of intrusive thoughts. These profiles might prove to be much more useful theoretically and practically than either global measures or measures of only one type of self-preoccupation, such as worry.

Test anxiety is often thought of as a primarily clinical problem. It might perhaps be more fruitful to approach it as a special case of self-preoccupation that interferes with task-relevant thinking. Self-preoccupying thought can lower test scores on instruments like the ASVAB and SAT and can also affect performance on the job. Yet people who are prone to worry in evaluative situations benefit simply from their attention being called to the importance of maintaining a task focus. Viewed in this light, self-preoccupying thought, such as worry, has implications in the fields of education and personnel, as well as in the clinical domain. It would be worthwhile to carry out research studies in which interventions like the ones described in this paper are applied in a vareity of educational and personnel contexts in order to determine whether they generally have the salutary effects on performance found in the research reviewed here.


REFERENCES

Broadbent D. E., Cooper P. E., FitzGerald P., & Parkes K. R. ( 1982). The cognitive failures questionnaire (CFQ) and its correlates. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 21, 1-16.

Burchfield, Sarason I. G., Sarason B. R., & Beaton ( 1984). Physiological aspects of test anxiety. Unpublished research, University of Washington, Seattle.

Ganzer V. G. ( 1968). Effects of audience presence and test anxiety on learning and retention in a serial learning situation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8, 194-199.

Geen R. G. ( 1976). Test anxiety, observation, and range of cue utilization. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 15, 253-259.

Geen R. G. ( 1980). Test anxiety and cue utilization. In I. G. Sarason (Ed.), Test anxiety: Theory, research, and application (pp. 43-62). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Holroyd K. A., & Appel M. A. ( 1980). Test anxiety and physiological responding. In I. G. Sarason (Ed.) Test anxiety: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 129-154). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Neisser U. ( 1976). Cognition and reality: Principles and implications of cognitive psychology. San Francisco: Freeman.

Nelson T. O., & Narens L. ( 1980). Norms of 300 general-information questions: Accuracy of recall, latency of recall, and feeling-of-knowing ratings. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 19, 338-368.

Read P. P. ( 1974). Alive. Philadelphia: Lippencott.

Sarason I. G. ( 1958). The effects of anxiety, reassurance, and meaningfulness of material to be learned, on verbal learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 56, 472-477.

Sarason I. G. ( 1960). Empirical findings and theoretical problems in the use of anxiety scales. Psychological Bulletin, 57, 403-415.

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