Mental Retardation: The Developmental-Difference Controversy

By Edward Zigler; David Balla | Go to book overview

1 Introduction: The Developmental Approach to Mental Retardation

Edward Zigler David Balla Yale University

There is a central issue and unifying theme of this book: the developmental- difference controversy in the area of mental retardation. Stated most simply, this controversy centers around the question of whether the behavior of those retarded persons with no evidence of central nervous system dysfunction is best understood by those principles in developmental psychology that have been found to be generally applicable in explaining the behavior and development of nonretarded persons, or whether it is necessary to invoke specific differences over and above a generally lower rate and asymptote of cognitive development. This controversy is of importance because at least 75% of all those identified as retarded have no evidence of organic brain dysfunction.

Retarded persons with no evidence of organic brain dysfunction are referred to by the American Association on Mental Deficiency as suffering from "retardation due to psychosocial disadvantage." The older and more widely used term is "cultural-familial retardation." We use this latter term throughout the book. We prefer this term in that this form of retardation is best understood as involving a combination of environmental (cultural) and genetic (familial) causes. Thus, the term cultural-familial seems to us to be a more precise diagnosis than "retardation due to psychosocial disadvantage." According to the developmental theorist, the familially retarded person is viewed as a normal individual in the sense that he falls within the normal distribution of intelligence dictated by the gene pool. He or she is normal in exactly the same sense that a person who is in the lower third percentile of height is considered to be normal. This person will be called "short" but will not be seen as being abnormal. As a consequence of the developmental theorists' view of a familially retarded person as a normal individual, these theorists predict that the performance of this retarded person

-3-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Mental Retardation: The Developmental-Difference Controversy
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 342

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.