Mental Retardation: The Developmental-Difference Controversy

By Edward Zigler; David Balla | Go to book overview

Reminiscent of our own findings discussed previously, the proportions of children in the retarded and nonretarded groups who profited from conservation training did not differ. Perhaps more relevant to the rigidity position, in whatever form it takes, were the findings that the retarded and nonretarded groups did not differ in the extent to which they generalized their conservation mastery to quantities that were not trained, even though none of the children were conservers at the start of the training. The retarded and nonretarded groups were also highly similar at the delayed posttest, given after 2 ½ to 16 months, mainmining their conservation mastery. The groups that received training also were superior in conservation performance to the control groups both at posttest and delayed posttest.


REFERENCES

Achenbach T. M. "Cue learning, associative responding, and school performance in children". Developmental Psychology, 1969, 1, 717-725.

Backer M. H. "An experimental investigation of the motivational hypothesis of rigidity in retardates: A comparison of retarded and normal performance on a series of card-sorting tasks". Dissertation Abstracts, 1966, 26, 4068-4069.

Balla D., & Zigler E. "Discrimination and switching learning in normal, familial retarded, and organic retarded children". Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 1964, 69, 664-669.

Brown A. L. "Conservation of number and continuous quantity in normal, bright, and retarded children". Child Development, 1973, 44, 376-379.

Brown A. L. "The role of strategic behavior in retardate memory". In N. R. Ellis (Ed.), International review of research in mental retardation (Vol. 1). New York: Academic Press, 1974.

Brown A. L. "Knowing when, where, and how to remember: A problem of metacognition". In R. Glaser (Ed.), Advances in instructional psychology (Vol. 1). Hillsdale, N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1978.

Budoff M. "Learning potential as a supplementary strategy to psychometric diagnosis". In J. Hellmuth (Ed.), Learning Disorders (Vol. 3). Seattle: Special Child Publications, 1965.

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Campione J. C., & Brown A. L. "Memory and metamemory development in educable retarded children". In R. V. Kail Jr. & J. W. Hagen (Eds.), Perspectives on the development of memory and cognition. Hillsdale, N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1977.

Carkhuff R. R. "Perseveration of habit in drawing tasks as a characteristic distinguishing mental defectives from normals". Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1962, 18, 413-415.

Carkhuff R. R. "Variations in performance of noninstitutionalized retardates". Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1966, 22, 168-170.

Corter H. M., & McKinney J. D. "Flexibility training with educable retarded and bright normal children". American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1968, 72, 603-609.

Field D. "Long-term effects of conservation training with educationally subnormal children". Journal of Special Education, 1974, 8, 237-245.

Field D. Studies in conservation training with retarded and normal school-children. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of London, 1975.

Field D. "How children in educationally subnormal schools in London learn conservation skills". In Proceedings of the seventh annual interdisciplinary conference on Piagetian theory and its implications for the helping professions. Los Angeles: University of Southern Calif., 1977. (a)

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