Mental Retardation: The Developmental-Difference Controversy

By Edward Zigler; David Balla | Go to book overview

upon these issues in any very meaningful way. Fortunately, the issues are matters of fact that will be resolved through sound empirical effort. The purpose and nature of this effort is such that, whereas one point of view or another may be proved erroneous, none of the participants will be losers. Indeed, to the extent that we expand our knowledge concerning the retarded, we will all be winners.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The preparation of this chapter was facilitated by Research Grant HD-03008 from the United States Public Health Service, and by the Gunnar Dybwad Award of the National Association for Retarded Children.

The author would like to acknowledge his great indebtedness to Susan Harter, not only for her cogent criticisms of an earlier version of this presentation, but, more importantly, for the significant collaborative role that she has played over the years in helping the author formulate the position presented in this chapter.


REFERENCES

Achenbach T., & Zigler E. "Social competence and self-image disparity in psychiatric and nonpsychiatric patients". Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1963, 67, 197-205.

Achenbach T., & Zigler E. "Cue-learning and problem-learning strategies in normal and retarded children". Child Development, 1968, 39, 827-848.

Badt M. I. "Levels of abstraction in vocabulary definitions of mentally retarded schoolchildren". American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1958, 63, 241-246.

Balla D., & Zigler E. "Discrimination and switching learning in normal, familial retarded, and organic retarded children". Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1964, 69, 664-669.

Baumeister A. A. "Paired-associates learning by institutionalized and noninstitutionalized retardates and normal children". American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1968, 73, 102-104.

Baumeister A. A., & Bartlett. C. J. "A comparison of the factor structure of normals and retardates on the WISC". American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1962, 66. 641-646. (a)

Baumeister A. A., & Bartlett C. J. "Further factorial investigations on WISC performance of mental defectives". American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1962, 67, 257-261. (b)

Bijou S. W. "A functional analysis of retarded development". In N. R. Ellis (Ed.), International review of research in mental retardation (Vol. 1). New York: Academic Press, 1966.

Butterfield E. C. "Stimulus trace in the mentally retarded: Defect or developmental lag?" Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1968, 73, 358-362.

Cameron A., & Storm T. "Achievement motivation in Canadian Indian middle- and working-class children". Psychological Reports, 1965, 16, 459-463.

Ellis N. R. "The stimulus trace and behavioral inadequacy". In N. R. Ellis (Ed.), Handbook of mental deficiency. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963.

Green C., & Zigler E. "Social deprivation and the performance of feebleminded and normal children on a satiation-type task". Child Development, 1962, 33, 499-508.

Gruen G., & Zigler E. "Expectancy of success and the probability learning of middle-class, lower- class, and retarded children". Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1968, 73, 343-352.

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