American Diplomacy in a New Era

By Stephen D. Kertesz | Go to book overview

7: UNITED STATES POLICY TOWARDS JAPAN

Chitoshi Yanaga

American policy toward Japan since the end of the Second World War has passed through three distinct stages. In the immediate postsurrender period, from September, 1945 to the end of 1947, it was one of carrying out the declared intentions of the Cairo Declaration, the Yalta Agreement, the Potsdam Proclamation, and the terms of the instrument of surrender. Despite serious differences of opinion regarding procedure in the Council of Foreign Ministers, the United States was able to lead the Allies in implementing the postwar policy which included liquidation of the war and Japan's war-making potential, military, economic and political, and punishment of war criminals, the exaction of war reparations payments, and the encouragement of democratic developments.

The second phase, from the beginning of 1948 to the signing of the San Francisco Peace Treaty in September, 1951, was a period of rapid deterioration of Soviet-American relations culminating in a cold war and the collapse of Nationalist China's power, resulting in the communist takeover of the China mainland. It was characterized by America's decision to build Japan's strength in the face of Soviet obstruction and opposition. Reconstruction and rehabilitation of Japan's national economy along with the building of defense capabilities became overriding considerations of American policy. This was in fact a reversal of the initial post-surrender policy which envisaged a weak and powerless, if not helpless, Japan, incapable not only of attacking any nation but also of defending itself. American policy toward Japan became part of the cold war within the larger policy of meeting the forces of communist expansion in Europe as well as in Asia.

The third phase which began in April, 1952, represents the policy of encouraging and aiding Japan as an independent and sovereign nation allied in the joint defense and preservation of the free world against the encroachments of international communism. Japanese problems have become American problems in a real sense since

-189-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
American Diplomacy in a New Era
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 601

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.